Neurofeedback is a type of biofeedback. In biofeedback information about some part of your body is fed back to you, allowing you to gain conscious control over processes that were previously unconscious. You may be familiar with biofeedback as a way of changing ones blood pressure or reducing the pain of a headache.
In neurofeedback the information that is
fed back to you is brain activity via EEG (electroencephalogram) data read by sensors
placed on your head. The goal is to encourage your brain to produce more brain waves associated with a calm and alert state, and fewer brain waves associated with sleep, daydreaminess, or a fight/flight state. When the computer notices your brain producing more of the desired waves it will beep at you and a video game will progress. This tells your brain that it is doing the right thing, and it will very quickly learn to produce more of those calm and alert brain waves.
Although the effects of this training is temporary at first, your brain will soon learn to more quickly access the desired brain states, and the effects will remain longer over time. After 20-40 of these training sessions, your brain will have learned to stay in this state of proper arousal, and it will be able to more flexibly shift states as needed. Training works best if sessions are held at least twice weekly so that the learning your brain did from one session to the next is not lost. It's like going to the gym, except that the brain is learning a skill that it can keep forever.
Neurofeedback has several goals:
(Above information is adapted from www.Neurofeedbacktoday.com)
Great YouTube video explaining neurofeedback: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6XeCwFQrCA&feature=player_embedded